Friday, February 16, 2018

Life as a Missionary PT Part 5: PT Introduction and Subjective History

This is part 5 of a series of posts about what my ministry is like.

Remember, I'm just sharing my personal experience with this particular hospital in this particular country. Other missionaries at this same center will have different viewpoints, as will missionary PTs serving in other places.
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Most of my patients have never heard of physiotherapy, and even fewer have any idea what a physio does or the types of conditions they treat. So it's not surprising when the fistula surgeon tells them that instead of having surgery they're going to work with physio.

In the US, when I meet a patient for the first time I say something like, "Hi, I'm Kate (or Dr. Kate) and I'll be your physical therapist. You'll also get to work with ___, my PT Assistant. I see that Dr. ___ sent you to us to work on ___." Then I'll usually ask them what their main issue is and what finally brought them into PT. Sometimes I get the run-on story that seems to have no point and no connection whatsoever to their physical impairment, but I've learned to listen well and try to guide their storytelling so that it answers my questions.

Here, it's very different. First off, names and titles don't play as much of a role in this clinic; she just wants to know I can help her. Also, I have another woman with me to translate. That means that when a patient enters the PT room, there are two sets of greetings and answers back! Sometimes a woman will come with her small child (those are the fortunate ones to have had a live child, despite sustaining a fistula), so I'll ask after the baby. Just this morning when I went to call my patients who were sitting on the front steps of the fistula center, I interrupted a mama giving a bucket bath to her toddler girl. Instead of finishing the girl's bath, she just handed the water dipper off to another woman and followed me to the clinic!

So, we get settled in the clinic. Me sitting on a step stool, the translator in my desk chair, and the patient on a plastic chair that we can wipe down if she has an accident. 

I take a quick look at her brown patient card, taking note of the number of surgeries she's had, the types of repairs we've done, when the last surgery was, if we've prescribed specific medications for overactive bladder before, and the number of children she's had.

Then I tell her something like, "The doctors didn't find any hole that is making the urine to come out. But we think that the muscles in your vagina are weak or aren't working correctly. There's no surgery for this, and you don't need any medicine. I will teach you exercises to help your vagina." That always elicits a strange look from them!

I don't usually ask much about her history other than what is on the card. Here, people either don't have a health history, or don't know how to describe it. And I don't do a medication review except occasionally asking "That medicine we gave you before--the one you take at night--does that one help you?" Sometimes I really don't want to know what traditional healing concoctions she's tried!

So I ask about their symptoms right now. Again, these questions are worded differently than if I was asking someone in the States. And I find myself talking in broken English to my translator because it aids in literal translation to Hausa and occasionally the patient will understand my English question. 

"When you cough, the urine it do come?"
"When you feel pressed, can you go to that place (toilet) before the urine drops?"
"Does the urine drop small small or much?"
"When you wake up in the morning, is your bed wet?"
"If the urine starts to pour, can you stop it?"
"Do you have to put rag?" (incontinence products are not available here, aside from a few places that carry adult diapers, so most women place rags inside their underwear to absorb leakage)

I find that sometime she'll have a hard time answering these questions. Maybe it's a difference in the Hausa that we speak, maybe it's the fact that she don't know when she's wet, they just know that she's wet, maybe it's the fact that she's embarrassed. I also find that a woman's age, her religion, and education status play a role in how well she understands my questions and accurate her answers are. 

That all takes about five minutes. A far cry from the 15-20 I might spend in the US. But I get the information I need, or all the information I'm likely to get from her anyhow.

In the States, after I get the history, I always ask my patients what their goals are. Sometimes the goals are pretty obvious (reduce pain, walk without an assistive device, get back to sports), but sometimes they're more unusual (be able to hold urine for 2 hours so she can go on a retirees-only bus tour, be able to pick up a bag of deer feed without pain). I don't really have to ask about goals here--they all want to be dry. If they can tolerate sex again, or be dry at night, that's a bonus!

I'm learning how to do PT treatments with little information; just enough so I'm not shooting in the dark, but not near what I'm used to getting in the US. But that's OK. I can always ask more questions later, and I'm learning to be better in my examination skills so I can find the answers out myself. And that is what the next post will be about...

Thursday, February 1, 2018

Life as a Missionary PT Part 4: Prescriptions and Referrals

This is part 4 of a series of posts about what my ministry is like.

Remember, I'm just sharing my personal experience with this particular hospital in this particular country. Other missionaries at this same center will have different viewpoints, as will missionary PTs serving in other places.
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So what happens next after we do the clinic exam and we don't find a fistula and therefore don't schedule her for surgery?

If the woman needs further gynecologic care, or is pregnant and needs referral for free prenatal care, we'll send her with her brown card and tell her what days those particular departments run clinics. Or if we suspect the woman is HIV+, we refer her to the on-site AIDS center where they will do testing, counseling, and provide medications.

We have limited access to imaging--really only x-rays and ultrasound--at the main hospital of which the fistula center is a part, and our lab does the more common tests (like HIV, malaria, hematocrit, blood glucose), so we can write out the order slips for those tests. If the test is related to VVF, especially the blood tests we do pre-operatively, the tests will be free of charge to the patient.

In the case of a patient who is leaking urine or stool, in the absence of an identifiable fistula, we have a couple of options. If the leakage is only every once in a while, occurs with specific activities, or she complains of difficulties urinating/leaking after urinating she'll be referred to pelvic PT for pelvic muscle retraining. Other women only leak at night (often because they can control their leakage by urinating fairly often during the day), so we'll prescribe her a medication to reduce bladder spasms and help with incontinence caused by an overactive bladder muscle. She'll pick this medication up from our nurses' station and they'll tell her how to take it properly. Others will complain of a recent onset of urinary leakage, usually combined with other symptoms that make us think she has a urinary tract infection, so we'll treat her for that.

Referrals to pelvic PT are pretty easy because I'm usually sitting in on the Tuesday clinics, I read her intake form and main complaint, and all of us in the exam room work together to decide the best course of treatment. I have the opportunity to say, "I'd like to work with her," or "I think she could benefit from pelvic PT for ____," or if it's a easy re-education thing, I can teach her right then and there. I've gotten very good at demonstrating the technique of double voiding to ensure complete urination and reduce urinary retention... "When you feel like you want to piss, you go to that place, and squat down. When the urine is finished, stand up, shake your waist like this, then squat down again. More urine will come. Then you can stand up and fix your skirt." It's funny to see the nurses mimic my own motions as they translate it for the patient!

Since clinic can run into the afternoons on Tuesdays, I will usually see any new patients on Wednesday mornings when a nurse or Ladi are free to translate for me. This is something that's new for me; in the US, I'd want the doctor to see me that day if possible. Especially if I'd traveled many hours to come to the hospital and waiting til the next day means that I'd have to stay overnight in the hostel. But here, the women don't mind at all! Many would have to stay another day anyway, since the buses and vans leaving from the motor parks leave by noon. As long as I can see my patients by about 10am, they can travel that same day. Or, if they're going to remain with us for a week or two for PT, staying overnight that first night helps them get started settling in and meeting Mama Esther that runs our hostel. Also, the free meals we provide to our patients in the ward and in the hostel is another incentive to stay.

The referral system is pretty different than what we have in the US. There, the doctor will usually fax over a drug prescription, submit orders for imaging or bloodwork directly into the patient's medical record which is then forwarded to the correct departments, or the patient may walk out with a paper referral form for physical therapy. Very little is trusted to the patient to keep track of and there's little opportunity for the referral to get lost or illegally changed. Here, everything is written and handed to the patient who is then responsible for going to the the pharmacy to "collect the drugs" or for going to the right place on the right day to be seen in that clinic.